Coding Bits

There are a lot of ways to do this, but I searched for the title of this post and got few results.

One solution is to write some custom middleware.

Here’s a great guide:

You can specify different behavior based on status codes:

  def call(env)
    @status, @headers, @body =
    if @status == 400
      # do something here
    [@status, @headers, @body]

And you’ll need to add your middleware to the configs:

# config/environments/development.rb
config.middleware.insert_before ActionDispatch::ShowExceptions, MyMiddleware

Suppose you’re building a Rails app for Users who attend many Events, such that a User has_many :events. Now, suppose you want to query for all the Users who have attended an Event that occurred within the last week.

One simple way would be to fetch all the Events and, through those, grab all the Users that attended them, but this wouldn’t work well if we wanted to associate more complex filtering with Users, or use more complex joins.

When you’ve got a problem like that, this article by Richard Jones is phenomenal! I’ve needed to do this at two jobs and have a hard time dredging up this article, so I’m linking it here.

The gist is to use scenic to create and manage database views:

CREATE VIEW newest_events AS
  SELECT DISTINCT ON (user_id) *
  FROM events
  ORDER BY user_id, created_at DESC

Recently, we’ve been talking a lot about video games with our friends. It reminded me 11 years ago I made a game for the Nintendo DS Lite.

I don’t have any of the assets anymore except for these two screenshots:

title screen

game screen

It was neat to learn about all DS Lite hardware and thinking about processors and CPUs. Reminds me a little of Android development.

This post could also be titled “How to Set Up a Load Balancer in Front of Heroku” or “How to Set Up a Static IP Address on Heroku Without Add-ons.”

I work in East Africa, and data is fairly expensive for our users. A lot of telcos provide zero-ratings so that the owners of the service can choose to pay for the cost of the data instead of the users.

Zero-rating deals are typically scoped to a given IP address instead of a URL. If a service provider hosts a site, which points to, they’ll need to arrange a zero-rating deal for

We’re launching a new Web service on Heroku. I’d like to route traffic from a domain through to Heroku. Normally I’d follow Heroku’s Custom Domain Name guide, but because we’re providing zero-ratings I’ll need the client to interact with a specific IP address instead. My DNS needs to point to that specific IP address instead of to a Heroku subdomain.

I’m relatively new to networking, but after stumbling around for a while here’s what I set up.

I’m using HAProxy as a load balancer running on the server with the designated IP address. I set up SSL bridging following the HAproxy infrastructure layout guide.


The client accesses, which resolves to the HAProxy server. The proxy forwards the request to Heroku, receives the response, and sends it back to the client.

Here are some specific configuration details:

  1. Create an A record in DNS pointing from your domain to the HAProxy server, which has your designated zero-rated IP address.

  2. Specify the HAProxy back-end to point to your app’s subdomain on Heroku:

  server MY-APP ssl check cookie sni req.hdr(Host)
  1. Meanwhile, on Heroku’s side, associate your subdomain with the app:
$ heroku domains:add

And you’re done!

While debugging this system I noticed that my application code was issuing 301 Redirect responses when I hit, sending me to I initially thought that this was a result of mis-configuring something, but it turned out that those redirects were being issued from application logic, not by HAProxy or Heroku (which doesn’t perform redirects).

Aside from that brief redirection confusion, this configuration has worked pretty well! It might also be useful if you’d like more fine-grained control when setting up your static IP address than you’d get from a paid Heroku add-on like QuotaStatic or Fixie.

An alternative implementation: It’s also possible to set up SSL pass-through. However, that requires giving your SSL certs to Heroku. Since I already had an ACM (automated certificate management) system, I wouldn’t have been able to auto-renew those certs on Heroku. And since I also already had a working HAProxy instance to build on, manually renewing certs for Heroku seemed more complicated than the solution presented above.

For a long time, I’d thought GIMP had bad support for tablets. Aside from feeling a lot of kinetic dissonance from the choppy feedback, I saw multiple mouse cursors. One cursor was from my laptop touch pad and another from my Wacom stylus. The two moved independently and stylus cursor disappeared every time I navigated away from the canvas.


I searched a lot for GIMP tablet configurations and Wacom drivers for Linux, but turns out it was a Wayland issue.

Gnome with Xorg solved everything!

Hope this helps whoever else stumbles across this.

I used to edit PDFs using GIMP. I would open the PDF in GIMP, make edits, export it as a .mng file, and convert it back.

$ convert -reverse pdf.mng pdf.pdf

This would work well except all the texts were rasterized.

I recently tried editing PDFs using LibreOffice Draw again and was delighted to discover its PDF editing capabilities have improved. Gonna use LibreOffice Draw from now on.